Sein One of the four irregular verbs in German. Different from the strong verbs which follow a regular sound-shift pattern in vowels , since consonants, as well as vowels, change in the truly unpredictable irregular verbs. Formal: Was sind Sie von Beruf? VAs sint zee fon bey-Rewf What is your profession? Informal: Was bist du von Beruf?
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VAs bist dew fon bey-Rewf What is your profession? I am a waiter. As a Rule In German the indefinite article ein e is generally not used when a person states his profession unless the profession is qualified by an adjective. We Are Family Have you noticed how the endings for professions in both English and German are often -er? This goes back to way back when, as both languages share the same lexical morphology for forming agentive suffixes. When you learn a new language, you often revert to what feels like a somewhat infantile state of existence.
You have a limited vocabulary and, at best, a somewhat sketchy understanding of grammar. One advantage of learning a new language is that you can get away with acting a little childish. So get nosy. Start asking about everything. Make faux pas. As a Rule The interrogative pronouns wen and wem are used with a preposition to refer only to persons. The interrogative pronoun was refers to things and ideas. As an object of a prepositions, was may be replaced by a wo-compound: wo- is added as a prefix to prepositions, as in womit?
Getting Information the Easy Way A good-looking person is sitting across from you in a train.
He or she has been glancing over in your direction for some time now. Here are some other ways to break the ice. As a Rule To express directions of motion, the her- and hin- may be used with the interrogative wo to suggest motion toward the speaker woher, where from or motion away from the speaker wohin, where to. In spoken German the question words wohin and woher are often separated: wo is placed at the start of the question; hin and her appear at the end: Wohin geht Christine?
In a statement, hin and her occupy the last position in the sentence, like a separable prefix verb: Gehen wir hin. Ask Away Each of the following statements is an answer to a question. Try to ask the questions that the statements answer. In the first example, use the informal du to ask questions about Klaus. In the second example, use the third-person singular sie to ask questions about Beka. Ich reise gern. Sie reist einen Monat lang durch Deutschland. The greetings you use depend on your familiarity with a person. By now you should be well on your way to introducing yourself and your friends to other people.
But what if your mother, father, uncle, and in-laws are all traveling with you, peering over your shoulder every time you strike up a conversation? Perhaps the best thing to do is to find people to introduce them to so you can sneak away and finally have a really intimate conversation with someone. One approach is to ask the objects of your curiosity what they think about themselves: Do they consider themselves to be creative, intelligent, sensitive, or adventurous?
And to use adjectives correctly, you must attach the appropriate ending to them so that they agree in gender and case with the noun they are modifying. This is my wife. Of course, if you find yourself putting your foot in your mouth in German, you can always claim that you are still learning your vocabulary.
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Start practicing now with the words for family members in the following table. Are You Possessed? There are two principal ways of showing possession in German: by using the genitive case and by using possessive adjectives. However, to show possession, you must also decline the noun and the noun marker correctly.
Have you forgotten what noun marker means? Refresh your memory: noun marker refers to articles, such as der, die, das, or die the equivalent of the for plural nouns ; ein, the equivalent of a for masculine or neuter nouns; or eine, the equivalent of a for feminine nouns. Remember from Chapter 8 that masculine and neuter nouns take an ending, - e s, in the genitive case. Here is an abbreviated version of the genitive declension of the definite articles der, die, and das and of the plural article die.
When you use proper names or are speaking of family members possessing someone or something, you can use the genitive -s to show possession add the -s without an apostrophe to the end of the word.
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Possessive adjectives The adjectives mein, dein, sein, ihr, unser, euer, and ihr show that something belongs to someone. These are almost always followed by a noun and therefore, like the ein words, need an ending. The possessive adjectives my, your, his, her, and so on show that something belongs to somebody. In German, possessive adjectives agree in number and gender with the noun they are describing that is, with the thing being possessed rather than with the possessor, since the his or her part of the adjective already refers to the possessor.
Singular possessive adjectives use the same endings as the declension of the indefinite article ein declined in Chapter 8 and written out on a card by YOU! The following examples show someone loving someone.
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The someone is the direct object and therefore takes the accusative case. Er liebt seinen Vater. Er liebt seine Mutter. The following two tables review the declension of possessive adjectives that exactly mirror the declension of the indefinite article, ein. Do recall that the only way the following paradigm deviates from the definite article der Wort paradigm is that the masculine nominative, neuter nominative, and accusative take no ending.
Otherwise, it is your ein Wort paradigm! Now that you know how to express possession with the genitive case and with possessive adjectives, see whether you can express these relationships in German: Example: her father Answer: ihr Vater 1. Try forming five sentences to express your favorite things! Achtung The German word ihr eeR has many meanings. Let Me Introduce You Introductions keep people from standing on opposite sides of the room staring at their feet all evening.
Practice a few of the following phrases to get the hang of introducing yourself. Darf ich mich vorstellen? Mein Name ist …. Kennen Sie kennst du meine Schwester Kathrin? Kommen Sie komm , ich stelle Ihnen dir meine Schwester Kathrin vor.
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Das ist meine Schwester Kathrin. May I introduce myself? My name is …. Do you know my sister Katrin? Come on, let me introduce my sister Katrin. If you are being introduced to the head of a company at a business meeting, you will be given a formal introduction. Your response, in turn, should be expressed formally. Here are some formal ways of responding to an introduction: Es freut mich, Sie kennenzulernen. Here are some informal ways of responding to an introduction: Es freut mich, dich kennenzulernen. To reply to an informal introduction, say: Freut mich.
Froyt miH What a pleasure.
An-guh-naym Pleasant. Liszt has characterized her life as "a grand symphony of generosities, munificences, alms, charities, gifts and favours, as delicate as they are costly. Not only did she accuse Garibaldi of ungratefulness; the Cretans too have disappointed her: "I add the observation that my twenty-four years of residence on Crete have considerably tuned down my opinion of its inhabitants.
When I made my excursion to Sphakia in , my heart was glowing with Philhellenism; many things which seemed perfectly true at the time I could no longer affirm now. Garibaldi biographer Jasper Ridley introduces her as a typical vamp : Tall and handsome, with golden hair, born in England, she was the daughter of a Hamburg banker, but claimed to be English because she had been born in England, and had spent much of her life in England and Italy. Her first husband had committed suicide, and her second husband, the Baron von Schwartz, had divorced her.