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Every chapter that we finalize bring us hapiness and a feeling of fulfilment. Indeed, military of different nationalities who fought side by side in France visited this city. As one of the seers told, Our Lady stated that the war would soon be over and soldiers would return home.
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The rigours of the climate, different to that in Portugal, only worsened the situation. Of the fifteen who set off with the first party, two were not able to cope and were soon forced to return. In April , the Battle of the Lys , disastrous for the Portuguese Expeditionary Force, represented an opportunity for the chaplains in the field to demonstrate their qualities of serenity, courage and even of sacrifice.
They were duly showered with public praise and medals.
At the end of the war, the number of chaplains who rendered active religious support in the field of war not including the four on duty in Africa was approximately thirty. Decree no. The decree established that chaplains receive a salary in accordance with their post. The sphere of religious assistance also extended to honouring the fallen.
The solemn ceremonies that took place on 15 May , presided over by Cardinal Mendes Belo, were endowed with considerable magnitude. For the first time since the founding of the Republic, the most important members of the two power hierarchies appeared side by side in public. The funereal prayer given by the Bishop of Portalegre, D. As regards those soldiers held prisoner in Germany, religious support was handed over to the initiative of those detained.
However, following the armistice and their respective liberation, the chaplains were charged with supplying clothing and shoes in addition to spiritually caring for the soldiers flocking into French ports in states of extreme misery. At the end of war, with tens of thousands of soldiers awaiting transport back to Portugal — an operation that advanced extremely slowly — the money deployed by the Commission coordinating the religious assistance sought to fulfil what under normal circumstances would have been the responsibility of the Portuguese state.
In a fashion similar to the Catholics, the Protestant churches felt the greatest sense of need to have their own representatives in the battle zone. In truth, Portuguese believers in non-Catholic Christian faiths were a minority. However as happened with the religious majority , Protestant community leaders believed that the time was propitious for winning over new converts. In Tancos, throughout the period of military training prior to departure for France, thousands of bibles and evangelist material were distributed. Later, the same happened on the departure wharves, barracks and all other military focal points.
As regards their presence on the front line in France, the fact that a large number of preachers and religious figures were British would seem to have been favourable to their mission from the outset. They were able to count on the benevolence of the British command, although this actually made little difference on the ground. The British religious activist, Carlos Swan , a former missionary to Angola — and therefore fluent in Portuguese — encountered difficulties when he tried to organise the Christian Union of Soldiers among the Portuguese Expeditionary Force.
The departure of Portuguese Protestant chaplains required preliminary negotiations between the representatives of the different communities, who, in an effort to ensure equality of opportunity, established that the Protestants would alternate in missions. The Protestant communities did not face these obstacles lying down. They proved able, via this alternative means, to establish a presence on the battlefields. This charitable work relied upon important funding from the International America Committee. Having achieved authorisation from Minister Norton de Matos, Alfredo da Silva set off for France, having obtained permission for Portuguese soldiers to access and benefit from these infrastructures provided by British establishments whenever they did not have access to their own facilities.
It should be noted that even the Catholic chaplains had no reservations about accepting the hospitality of Red Triangle whenever in Paris, which proved at least a non-hostile, if not actually friendly, relationship. Volunteers were required to staff these facilities and Myron Clark put out an appeal to all evangelical Christians. Their response was not long in coming.
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The secretary of war received a steady stream of requests for authorisation for obreiros staff workers to be granted passports and visas. In fact, they were subject to obligatory religious neutrality not demanded of the Catholics. Nevertheless, it should be recalled that their actions were not focused on organising religious services for their co-believers — there would only be six such services according to official accounts — but on taking their message to those who knew little about Christianity and who would receive religious texts and have the message explained to them.
While World War One is generally considered a landmark in contemporary history, in Portugal the war proved determinant in the religious field, bringing about a change in attitudes and sweeping away pre-existing prejudices.
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On another note, the natural way in which the British engaged with different religions represented a lesson for Portuguese priests who learned to respect missionaries of other confessions, while never giving up on combating their respective influence. In April , in the Portuguese ceremonies held in honour of the Unknown Soldier — indeed, the two soldiers, one fallen in France and another in Africa — chaplains were in attendance and demonstrated that cooperation during the conflict really had opened up new scope for mutual understanding.
The Catholic chaplains expressed special pride in their dual role as priests and military.
Their leader would be the Bishop of the Diocese of Beja, known as the bishop-soldier, a title he adopted with pride. Among the population who, while far from the conflict and bloodshed, still experienced the suffering, driving intensification in religious belief in turn fostered a higher level of faith in divine intervention. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, ed. DOI : Version 1. Religion Portugal. From the formation to the 5th October of ], Coimbra , p. With or without God, that is the question], Lisbon a, pp. Portugal at War , Lisbon , p.
The conference papers were published in the same year. Sousa, J. To the Men and Women of my Country], Lisbon , p. Fernando de Sousa Nemo refers specifically to the sectarian hatred of Protestant troops towards Belgian and French clergymen in: Sousa, J. Fernando de: A Grande Guerra. Some Christian and Patriotic Aspects], Lisbon The minister of war forbade its circulation, alleging that, due to the title, it sought to insinuate that all Portuguese soldiers were Catholic.
Copies that had already been printed had the new title stamped onto them. It can be found in the Monastery of Batalha, a monument itself built in commemoration of the Battle of Aljubarrota of The Earth is our mother. Who would have imagined that a few years ago? Our opponents use the same tactics and their purpose is the same — evicting us from our lands to exploit them irresponsibly.
Modern technology is used against us, so why not use it for us? The peoples of Amazonia live in a territory bigger than most countries; many of us only met each other recently. Using technology, we can exchange experiences more frequently. We are the guardians of the forest and we will do our utmost to defend it. And we will never stop being its indigenous inhabitants and women. Ela sabe que lhe cabe um novo papel no mundo.