Core design changes are necessary to enable the product or service to function in a circular economy See related case studies. The shift to a circular economy requires innovative business models that either replace existing ones or seize new opportunities. See related case studies. To prevent the leakage of materials or nutrients when looping back to the manufacturer, new systems and technologies are required. We have detected that you are using an older browser. Please update to the latest version of Google Chrome , Mozilla Firefox or Microsoft Edge to improve your user experience.
If you are unable to upgrade your browser, please see our Technical FAQ page to get tips on how to improve your user experience. Charity Registration No. Discover our other sites An action-oriented set of methods, mindsets and thought starters to help innovators design circular solutions that are fit for the future. Go to website. The online festival of ideas that asks: What if we could redesign everything? The go-to online location for news and insight on the circular economy and related subjects. Circular economy Our story Our work Resources News. Our Story. Partners The team Mission Milestones.
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Coca-Cola Enterprises Increasing post-consumer plastic content in packaging. More equity is a key concept discussed in the European Union to find consensus between regions of different levels of wealth. Sustainability is a task, which cannot be addressed only by individuals, single companies or single countries.
Sustainability is rather an all-embracing, cross-sectional task including aspects of each engineering discipline, which have to be addressed on a global scale. Sustainable Engineering can be defined as the application of scientific and technical knowledge to satisfy human needs in different societal frames without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. To achieve this goal, scientists and engineers cooperate in international and multidisciplinary groups and organizations.
They use their imagination, judgement and take initiative to apply science, technologies and practical experience to shape competitive processes and products. Management guides the creation, application and evaluation of science, technology, processes, and products, as well as the dissemination of knowledge. In Figure 3 , the engineering perspectives in sustainability are illustrated, whereby human needs are represented as the MASLOW pyramid spanning all societies Maslow, The different colored columns between human needs and the available resources describe the dissimilarity of conditions of the global society.
Engineering challenges are the design of products and processes with improved usefulness and less environmental harm. Technology interpreted as science systematically exploited for useful purposes offers huge potentials to contribute. Technology enables processes to transform natural resources into products to meet human needs. The interaction between research and education imposes dynamics on how creative solutions are developed for relevant tasks. In order to achieve the ambitious goals of sustainability, a paradigm change in applying engineering has to be performed.
Hereby, increasing the use of productivity of resources has to be investigated in order to satisfy human needs of the current and future generation without exceeding the ecological limits of the planet.
Remanufacturing modeling and analysis
Means of this approach are, e. In Figure 4 , the relation between resource productivity, standard of living, resource consumption and ecological limits are illustrated. The question arises, which forces, e. European legislation is analyzed regarding its effectiveness to cope with this challenge. The following analysis is restricted to electric and electronic goods, because especially these products have a large impact on the environment. In fact, recent studies indicate that the major environmental impacts throughout the life cycle of electric and electronic equipment EEE occur in the material extraction and production stages Figure 5.
For example, it has been shown that the production of a single microchip with a surface of 2. Keeping in mind that many of the EEE, e. On February 24, the European Council presented a resolution on a community strategy for waste management in the European Union EU. The resolution insisted " It was recognized that the " Based on this resolution, the European Parliament published the directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment The European The concept of producer responsibility forms the quintessence of the directive.
The producer is responsible for financing the collection from collection facilities, as well as the treatment of recovery and disposal of WEEE. He should be allowed to choose to fulfill this obligation either individually or by joining a collective initiative. Furthermore, he shall provide a financial guarantee to prevent costs for the management of WEEE from orphan products. EU member states were obliged to bring into force the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with the directive on WEEE. A comparison of the transposition of the directive in EC member states is well described in a frequently updated report published by Perchards The holder must discard movable property when such property is no longer used in keeping with its original purpose, and when, due to its specific state, it could endanger, either in the present or the future, the public interest, especially the environment.
On the one hand, this can enable companies to re-market valuable equipment, e. IT equipment, into markets with high demand, e. On the other hand, it leaves a door open for companies to bypass legislation. In Germany today, the temptation of abusive interpretation of legislation is growing for producers and recyclers as well.
Even when collected as waste, a product can be declared functional and then be treated as a normal commercial asset thereafter.
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It is at least questionable whether waste can be monitored and accounted for if producers implement individual collection and treatment schemes in cooperation with recyclers without proper inspections. To avoid the environmentally harmful export of WEEE, stricter inspections are required but not sufficient. Recyclers and re-marketing companies must be enabled to benefit from the opportunities in remarketing of functional equipment and components without the need of exporting waste.
In Figure 6 , the complexity regarding market actors and relationships that need to be dealt within European legislation on electronic waste is depicted. Figure 7 shows the provocative reality of exporting harmful non-functional electronic waste in containers via the Hamburg harbour.
Officials neither have sufficient staff at their disposal, or the qualifications to test equipment in order to avoid illegal exports. To investigate the relative environmental emissions associated with recycling vs. The results of the investigation showed as expected that mobile tele-phone production accounts for almost all of the non-energy related emissions in the life cycle.
It was also found that the integrated circuits, display modules and main printed circuit boards accounted for nearly three-quarters of the energy consumed in the production phase. The remanufacturing pathway has by far the least energy consumption. This is because the remanufacturing pathway, unlike recycling, avoids repeating manufacturing steps with characteristically high energy consumption and environmental emissions.
The results indicate that the difference between land filling and remanufacturing a mobile tele-phone represents approximately 10 days of energy consumption for the average German household and 9 months of CO 2 sequestration potential for an average tree Guenther et al. Enabling technologies for sufficient remanufacturing are efficient remanufacturing processes and advanced product design using modularization techniques. Both challenges are described below. For remanufacturing processes, disassembly and testing are described in the example of LCD Liquid Crystal Display monitors.
The improvement of the product design to increase the efficiency of remanufacturing is discussed in the example of a mobile tele-phone. Efficient remanufacturing processes. Remanufacturing is already a profitable business field.
In fact, companies in Europe and North America are making significant profits by selling remanufactured products and components, e. However the potential of remanufacturing is not fully exploited yet. Complex and manual processes, various product models, missing product information, high spare-part costs, quality problems as well as technological and stylistic obsolescence are making remanufacturing of many products unprofitable.
An analysis of cost structures in the remanufacturing industry quickly revealed the major cost drivers: acquisition of cosmetic parts, manual sorting, disassembly and reassembly, as well as manual testing of functionality Seliger et al. The remarketing of used flat screen desktop monitors is evolving into a profitable market segment. Demand for used or non-functional monitors is growing especially in Eastern European countries and cannot be covered by End-of-Life EoL products, yet.
Non-functional phase-out models are often sold to repair-shops in Eastern European countries, which is often associated with improper EoL treatment of non-reusable components. To avoid negative environmental impacts caused by today's practice in demand markets with slack environmental regulations, clean remanufacturing activities must be initiated at the returned product's origin. The demand for flat screen monitors today is growing more.
Remanufacturing modeling and analysis (eBook, ) [cartabertingco.ga]
Used monitors are hardly available due to the low market penetration. In alone, about Mio. With 97 Mio. To estimate the return volume of used monitors that are to be disposed in , one can assume the average monitor's usage time being approximately 4 years, i. In that year, about Mio. In addition to this, one needs to consider those monitors that were used more than once, i. According to NSC the average period for second usage is 2.